A collection of examples and sources I use in my teaching.
A basicintroductionto frequency modulation in Pd and a video tutorial for building an fm patch. A demonstration of the YamahaDX7. Anextensivediscussion of the properties of frequency modulation from Barry Truax (with links to examples from his compositions using this technique). And a technical explanation ofFM with illustrations of the sidebands and more from another master of the technique -Bill Schottstaedt.
Several illustrations of configuration for fm-synthesis sounds (bell-like, brass-like, etc.). A general tutorial about fm-synth with reference to various software implementations.
This method was pioneered by John Chowning. Here he is explaining how he discovered this technique:
His piece Stria applies the Golden Ratio to constructing its fm-synthesised tones.
Computer Music Journal dedicated an issue to this important work, were you can read about the techniques used in the composition of this piece. And here is an article by John articulating his ideas about the link between synthesising new sounds and tuning systems that computers make available.